Saturday, March 10, 2012

What are the odds that this sequence will occur in a random chain of DNA?

Hind III recognizes a sequence of six nucleotides (AAGCTT) as a cut site. What are the odds that this sequence will occur in a random chain of DNA?

This question is part of a lab in my A.P. Biology class. The title of the lab is called "Lab 6B: DNA Fingerprinting." Any help is quite appreciated!What are the odds that this sequence will occur in a random chain of DNA?
There are only 4096 different sequences of 6 nucleotides possible (4*4*4*4*4*4).

Further, TTCGAA is the same as AAGCTT read in reverse, so this changes the odds to 1 in 2048.What are the odds that this sequence will occur in a random chain of DNA?
How long is the random chain of DNA?

(P.S. I was going to give the same answer as Vincent G. The odds of any chain of 6 nucleotides being AAGCTT is 2 out of 4096 (since the direction doesn't matter) ... or 1 in 2048 nucleotides.

So if the chain is 2048 nucleotides long, the chances are pretty certain.

What is a good DNA test to help determine my full ancestry?

I see many websites offering test kits online,but What is one that is very specific as in it can like come close to pinpointing the exact country where my ancestors are from? Like say one that would come back with a test showing i dont know the % of my DNA that matches populations in Poland?

Any recomendations would be great

Thank YouWhat is a good DNA test to help determine my full ancestry?鈥?/a>

Here you go. I don't know if DNA is going to narrow it down so specifically for you, though.
Yes, in DNA Solutions you can get an answer to your dilemma.

They make DNA Tests for search your ancestors and other related procedures. Check their website...

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What is a good DNA test to help determine my full ancestry?
The Y dna is passed solely from father to son.

The mitochondrial is passed from the mother to both son and daughter but only the daughter passes it on to their children.

Most of our DNA is autosomal. We get it 50-50 from both parents. It is the only DNA that relates a female to her father or a male to his maternal grandfather. Right now, autosomal isn't being used. In about a year SMGF is going to use it for Genealogy.

Just put SMGF in your search engine.
what you want does not exist yet.

yeah, i know they are advertising it on TV, and their are artiles. But the state of the science is such that, at this time, they can RELIABLY say you had relatives in NOrthern Europe ( and 12 other places.)

If they say they can PROVE you have relatives from Poland, they are telling you what you want to hear.

give the science another 5 to 10 years before you spend your money.What is a good DNA test to help determine my full ancestry?
The problem isn't the DNA test. Any properly performed DNA test will in fact accurately (to the current limits of science) determine your DNA structure for the features being tested for (some do 8 point test, some 11, some 22, others (MUCH more expensive) even more).

The problem is the application of the DNA analysis to some other situation....where you came from for example. The resulting determination is only as good as the data on which it is based. And that data is evolving on a constant basis. If you look at the fine print, you will see an awful lot of disclaimers. "Anthropologists believe that", "Within the last 0 to 14 generations", etc.

If this suits your purpose, that's great. Just be aware of the limitations. Usually DNA testing is primarily used in CONJUNCTION with other information. Not standalone.

Just like genealogy, anthropology (and historical genetics which is pretty much the same thing) relies on best guesses at the time. A certain "mutation" is known to be predominant in a certain part of the world - thus, and for good reason, it is assumed that's where the mutation originated and thus anyone carrying that mutation (note mutation doesn't mean bad, just means different) must come from that region. Trouble is, historically it also shows up with less prevalence in other regions. Well, there are (AT LEAST) two ways to explain this -- The favorite is that the predominant original group MIGRATED to this region. Quite possible. But one other possibility is that the mutation occurred in this population, maybe at a much later time, just as it did in the original. There is no way to tell which is correct.

Now what can happen is that ADDITIONAL information can become known (archeological evidence for example) that also indicates a migration - bingo - now the belief that the original group migrated has more confidence. BUT, suppose archeological evidence showed that this group of people were there BEFORE the original group even existed! Well, the couldn't have migrated because they didn't exist yet. So is this a second mutation occurrence? OR now maybe this is the original source of the mutation and THIS group migrated to the other spot. It is dynamic, just as genealogy, history, archeology, anthropology is dynamic. Changing all the time based on new information, finer studies, etc.

But if you have the money and you understand what the results mean - and this fits your needs and purpose, they are all pretty much the same. Go for it.
Keep in mind that unless someone on the other end is also submitting their DNA, there isn't anything to compare it to!

What is the affect of caffeine on cheek cells in DNA extraction?

Why should you not consume caffeine before DNA extraction exercise, and what are the affects.What is the affect of caffeine on cheek cells in DNA extraction?
Theoretically speaking, caffeine can bind DNA.

Bur before it reaches nucleus and is able to bind to DNA, it has to cross so many barriers.

What part of DNA or genes is altered to cause Diabetes?

I have a science project and need to know what part of a person's genes or DNA is altered for Diabetes to occur.What part of DNA or genes is altered to cause Diabetes?
The part that is responsible for the creation of the hormone "Insulin".. In a type 2 diabetic, the insulin that is produced is slowed or the insulin itself is deformed to the point your body cannot utilize it properly. Insulin is used by the body to "unlock" the cell membrane so the glucose can enter into the cell to be used for energy. If the insulin is not there or is deformed, the glucose cannot get into the cells and, thus, builds up in the bloodstream..... To much glucose in the bloodstream is known as diabetes..

Type one is a different story.... it usually starts at a young age and is where the pancreas either produces very little or no insulin at all. Insulin injections are required for type 1 diabetics. The cause of the shut down of the pancreas is still a mystery, but many researchers believe it is due to the immune system attacking it...

Hope this helps you out !!!

What does the law have to say about testing DNA to clear someone of murder after the execution?

I've heard it said that there are no known cases in which DNA evidence cleared someone of murder after the person was executed for the murder. I don't know whether it's true, but if it is, could the reason be that there's some sort of law against it for some reason? Spending money on a posthumous investigation won't bring the wrongly executed person back to life, and the prosecutor would rather not be humiliated.What does the law have to say about testing DNA to clear someone of murder after the execution?
First of all there have been cases. Can't quote them for you, but I know they exist.

Second on DNA while the subject is out there...

DNA is ONLY exclusionary. In other words it can ONLY exclude people form a possible group, NOT include people.

It is incredibly scary to consider how brainwashed people have become about DNA evidence.

Consider that in the OJ Simpson case the odds of having another person in LA that would have also matched the DNA sequence meant about 25 people in LA could have left the DNA.

It was about 580 times more likely someone other than OJ Simpson left the sample than you winning the next lotto drawing with one ticket.

Chew on that, and pray you never get yanked on something that happens to match your DNA.
i think that the only reason they do it is because they are too lazy to do it while they're alive. n they know they cant bring the person back. all i know is that the government isnt doin their job rightWhat does the law have to say about testing DNA to clear someone of murder after the execution?
Many murder trials that were conducted before the use of DNA evidence can be re-examined in more detail by introducing DNA evidence. No, it won't bring the person back, but I think it's important to get an idea of how accurate our criminal justice system is if we are employing capital punishment.

Executing someone through capital punishment in a wrongful conviction is entirely inexcusable.
the defense can pay for it too you know. There is a foundation that works oon this sort of stuff, can't recall the name, but one of the attorneys is Barry Scheck (of OJ fame). google it.

I believe there have been some cases where the execution was already scheduled and imminent before a judge got cold feet due to new or pending DNA cases. California and Illinois come to mind.

Many states have put executions on hold in large part for this issue.What does the law have to say about testing DNA to clear someone of murder after the execution?
Genetic testing exonerated Florida inmate Frank Lee Smith several months after he died of natural causes while awaiting execution.

In 2000, tests ordered by a Georgia judge on evidence in the case of Ellis Wayne Felker, who was executed in 1996, were "inconclusive."

There is no law against it, but it must be ordered. And, as you note, there is a strong push-back against it.
well, consider the obvious.. if the wrong person was executed, the real criminal is possibly still out there, murdering someone else.

So, I think it would be valid (to a point). However, it won't happen for logistical reasons.
I think that all the people involved in those executions should go to jail. Especially, those involved in the judgement system

from the state of Texas: all of them are a bunch of criminals from the first one to the last one.
The law says the question is moot.

HOWEVER, if the govt wont do it, you can civilly go through the process of DNA testing, and if lucky possibly have the executed person declared not guilty.

Having the person declared not executed is beyond the scope of the law however.

Many in the legal system think its great to file charges and get convictions. Down in south florida they used to do it all the time until Ken Jenne, the Sheriff of Broward County, got arrested and convicted and thrown out of office.

THAT conviction WAS legit !!!

We can only hope the executed person committed some murder no one knew about so he got the right punishment even if it wasn't the right case....
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  • What is a library in the context of recombinant DNA technology?

    What is a library in the context of recombinant DNA technology? What are two common types of libraries made from eukaryotic cells? Why are both types of libraries often required?What is a library in the context of recombinant DNA technology?
    A library is a collection of DNA molecules from some particular source cloned into a vector. Ideally, a complete library represents every piece of DNA in the original source. The two types of libraries are genomic libraries and cDNA libraries. In a genomic library, genomic DNA is fragmented (either randomly or with a restriction endonuclease) and the fragments are ligated into plasmids or viruses. A collection of those is the library and should contain all of the DNA from the genome. A cDNA library is produced by first isolating mRNA from some cell type, and then using those mRNA to produce complimentary DNA molecules. These cDNA are then cloned into plasmids or other vector. This library would represent all of the expressed genes in the original source, and wouldn't contain either the full gene or any genes that aren't expressed in that particular source tissue. Further, because the cDNA library is produced from mRNA molecules, the library would not contain introns or any of the regulatory DNA from the genome.

    What is HPV DNA studies and what should I do?

    I took a thin prep pap smear last year and the result shown suggestive with HPV infection. The recommendation shows suggest HPV DNA studies. What is that? How bad/serious is that and what should I do next?What is HPV DNA studies and what should I do?
    Some types of HPV cause cervical cancer, and some cause genital warts.

    What's interesting, though, is that the genital warts strains can sometimes cause cervical dyplasia, but this would not progress to cancer.

    Most gynecologists I know don't actually recommend HPV DNA testing, but it's actually a really good idea!! They can use your pap smear sample (or get a new one) and tell you which strains of HPV you have. If you have one of the cancer-causing ones, they might want to do more tests on you, or follow up with you more frequently. They will do a colposcopy where they examine your cervix under a microscope and might do a biopsy if they see something suspiscious. (This procedure is no big deal!) They might recommend treatment, or just follow ups (probably every 3 months) until the HPV goes away.

    If you don't have a cancer-causing strain, your chances of cervical cancer are near zero, so they will probably just have you repeat the pap smear in 6 months or so.

    Whatever this is, even if you have a cancer-0causing type of HPV, if you go to all your follow ups, you doctor can treat anything BEFORE it becomes cancer. So no, this is NOT a big deal. It's very common, usually requires NO treatment, and if treatment is required, it's easy treatment and you will be 100% fine.What is HPV DNA studies and what should I do?
    HPV DNA testing will determine what type of HPV you have. Some types can cause cervical cancer, other types just cause genital warts. The test can determine if you have a high-risk type of HPV.

    **Also Dr Ester, you have been reported for copying and pasting my answer to a previous question which is a violation on Y!A:;鈥?/a>

    Please do your own research.